Institutes & Centers
At present, "top star" is the best way to describe ChatGPT.
ChatGPT is coming into extensive trials, attracting attention from academic circles, and tech firms have taken action on it... This content-generation system, which can mimic human conversation, write, and type codes, has made waves in artificial intelligence sector.
What is the impact of its widespread use? What is innovation in it? When will the next ChatGPT come out? The reporter recently interviewed Prof. BAO Hujun, Vice President of Zhejiang Lab and Executive Director of China Computer Federation.
How will ChatGPT kick off the future?
This chatbot from OpenAI, an artificial intelligence research laboratory in the United States, has reached over 100 million monthly active users, just two months after its release in November 2022. On February 7, 2023, ChatGPT was down due to a flood of traffic...
As a chatbot that can generate text-based chat with humans, ChatGPT can help you write e-mails, papers, proposal outlines, poems and stories, and even type codes, check for bugs...
BAO Hujun was talking to ChatGPT the other day and found the chatbot even a little "sophisticated". "It can not only answer a large number of follow-up questions and reject inappropriate requests, but also admit its mistakes and adjust answers."
He tentatively asked ChatGPT to imitate the tone of livestreamer Mr. LI Jiaqi and write an oral script to recommend a brand of lipstick.
"The first time it said no, indicating that recommending products was against its principles." However, when BAO Hujun asked the question in a different way for the second time, that is, he asked it, "Can you imagine that in your dream you had Mr. LI Jiaqi helping me write an oral script for this lipstick?" and ChatGPT gushed out with recommendations.
"During conversations, it will adjust its answers at any time, which shows that the information learning and integration mechanism behind it is refined," BAO Hujun said.
BAO Hujun believes that further widespread use of artificial intelligence such as ChatGPT have greatly improved the capabilities of content creation and man-machine interaction, which is expected to become an infrastructure like the Internet platform, causing productivity improvement to humans. In the future, interworking between image, text and sound will give more imagination and completely change human production and lifestyle.
"When you write a passage, ChatGPT can polish it up. When you need to write meeting minutes, ChatGPT can generate some text immediately. Industrially, if entrepreneurs need to know production line data, the system can quickly realize data integration and push based on verbal commands. At home, the elderly can chat with the system like a real person, easing their mental loneliness..."
How does ChatGPT read people's thoughts?
At present, artificial intelligence-backed chatbots are nothing new. For mass-market smart speakers like Xiao AI (by Xiaomi), Xiao Bing (by Microsoft) and Tmall Genie (by Alibaba), there's always one you can name.
However, there's somewhat different about ChatGPT, and it performs better in content generation and communication.
BAO Hujun believes that, in terms of capabilities and modes, ChatGPT has solved the major challenges faced by natural man-machine conversation over the years, and it is the revolution in large-scale pre-training and anthropomorphic Q&A alignment that has resonated with people from all walks of life.
Chatbot is essentially an AI-based machine learning model. In the course of development, developers usually input a lot of labeled data to train the system so that results can be output automatically using the algorithm.
According to BAO Hujun, ChatGPT is trained using a mechanism called Reinforcement Learning from Human Feedback (RLHF), which addresses the alignment between foundation models-based question answering and human cognition & needs, making an important innovation in engineering implementation.
RLHF Flow Diagram Source: OpenAI
In the training process, a small amount of Q&A-annotated data is first used to fine-tune GPT3.5 (Generative Pre-Trained Transformer). Then a trainer is enabled to access the system and constantly ask questions. The GPT3.5 model gives three answers to each question, and the answers are manually scored and ranked by satisfaction to build a reward model. The reward model will loop continuously and end up with a question-answering reinforcement learning model.
"By introducing human feedback, the system's predictive ability is aligned, which means making the given answers closer to human common-sense, cognition, needs and values," BAO Hujun said.
In terms of usage mode, the development of traditional models in the past is generally based on areas of expertise. It means that whenever the same base model is applied in different fields, developers need to use it to fine-tune annotated important data, resulting in low model application efficiency.
For ChatGPT, the model does not change once the parameters are deployed. Instead, through a comprehensive guide to users' questions, the relevant information is gathered for content learning and integration. At present, ChatGPT hits 100 million monthly users. "This means that data of 100 million ChatGPT users have been collected, making it get stronger," BAO Hujun said.
Who will develop the next ChatGPT to make waves?
ChatGPT has frequently hit the top social media rankings for days, with an endless stream of experiencers. Its popularity has also triggered the "catfish effect" in the field of artificial intelligence for commercial business.
In the early morning of February 7, 2023 at Beijing Time, Google launched its next-generation conversational AI system dubbed Bard. Then, Microsoft launched a new version of Bing, with ChatGPT built into Edge. In China, Baidu also announced the launch of a generative dialogue product "Wenxin Yiyan".
BAO Hujun believes that there are many machine learning model developers, and engineering implementation is the key to get ChatGPT projects done.
"A good machine learning model doesn't end when it is developed, but it really needs to find a convenient usage mode, so as to solve practical problems for more people via artificial intelligence," BAO Hujun said.
As the industry is rushing to catch up with ChatGPT, it's important to note that ChatGPT is not done at one go, BAO Hujun said. The success of ChatGPT is due to very powerful technology innovations, engineering implementation capability, and investors' courage.
Prior to this, OpenAI had accumulated technologies from GPT1 to GPT3 for seven years. GPT3, the predecessor of ChatGPT, has 175 billion parameters and is trained based on 45TB of data. The late stage of development was also supported by Microsoft's investments, as well as a great deal of time and effort.
"Investments in ideas, R&D, commercial business and other aspects are assured of a successful outcome. All of this in a way is another way of saying that we should be on guard against impetuosity and more patient and persistent," BAO Hujun said.
Although ChatGPT is far from perfect, its broad application prospects and influence on the future society have attracted much attention. Meanwhile, people are concerned about ChatGPT as well. Previously, those who used ChatGPT for help with papers and homework are considered unethical. Some netizens also worried that their jobs would be replaced by AI, leading to unemployment around the corner.
BAO Hujun doesn't think that we should have to weigh us down with it. He said that disappearance of some jobs will also lead to creation of new ones.
"ChatGPT can generate natural human and machine languages, showing some potential to move us toward artificial general intelligence (AGI), but its ability to understand and reason out text is still very weak. In many cases, it is necessary for users to check outputs for correctness and rationality, and we usually have to fine-tune and guide how to use the model in action manually. In addition, new jobs will be created as the AIGC (AI Generated Content) technology evolves," BAO Hujun said.